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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003 May;14(5):1272-7.

Menopause and postmenopausal hormone use and risk of incident kidney stones.

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  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.


Menopause is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion, which could increase the risk for the development of calcium-containing kidney stones. However, it is unknown whether menopause and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use are independent risk factors for incident kidney stone disease in women. Data from 91,731 female Nurses' Health Study participants who provided information on diet, menopause status, and kidney stone disease were used to examine the independent association between menopause and PMH use and risk of incident kidney stones. No association was found between menopause and incident kidney stones in age-adjusted (relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34) or multivariate models (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.41). However, when the association between the type of menopause and risk of incident kidney stones was examined, surgical menopause was associated with an increased risk in both the age-adjusted (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.77) and multivariate models (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.81), whereas natural menopause was not. Compared with never-use, past or current PMH use (including duration of PMH use) was not associated with incident kidney stones among postmenopausal women. In conclusion, no association was found between menopause and PMH use and incident kidney stones. Surgical menopause, however, may be associated with an increased risk.

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