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Semin Nephrol. 2003 Mar;23(2):141-6.

The genetic basis of FSGS and steroid-resistant nephrosis.

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  • 1Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 77 Louis Pasteur Ave, Boston, MA, USA.


Studies of Mendelian forms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and nephrotic syndrome have provided new insights into the mechanism of these diseases. Congenital nephrotic syndrome and familial forms of FSGS form a spectrum of podocyte diseases of varying severity and age of onset. Mutations in both nephrin gene (NPHS1) alleles lead to congenital nephrosis, podocyte foot process efacement, and loss of slit-diaphragm structure. Mutations in both podocin gene (NPHS2) alleles lead to a wide range of human disease, from childhood-onset steroid-resistant FSGS and minimal change disease to adult-onset FSGS. Dominantly inherited mutations in ACTN4, the alpha-actinin-4 gene, can lead to a slowly progressive adult-onset form of FSGS. In addition, FSGS is observed as part of several rare multisystem inherited syndromes. Here we review recent progress in understanding the genetic basis of FSGS in humans.

Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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