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J Periodontol. 2003 Feb;74(2):225-41.

Immediate functional and non-functional loading of dental implants: a 2- to 60-month follow-up study of 646 titanium implants.

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  • 1Dental School, University of Chieti, Italy.



The aim of this study was the evaluation, from a clinical point of view, of implants subjected to immediate functional loading (IFL) and to immediate non-functional loading (INFL) in various anatomical configurations.


The study included 152 patients who had given their informed consent. A total of 646 implants were inserted. The implants were placed in 39 totally edentulous mandibles, 14 edentulous maxillae, 23 edentulous posterior mandibles, 16 edentulous anterior mandibles, 16 edentulous anterior maxillae, and 15 edentulous posterior maxillae. Fifty-eight implants were used to replace single missing teeth. In 65 cases, IFL was carried out for 422 implants. INFL was carried out in 116 cases, (224 implants).


In the IFL group 6 of 422 implants failed (1.4%); in the INFL group 2 of 224 implants failed (0.9%). All the other implants appeared, from clinical and radiographic observations, to have successfully osseointegrated and have been functioning satisfactorily since insertion. All failures were observed in the first few months after implant loading.


Immediate functional and non-functional loading seems to be a technique that gives satisfactory results in selected cases.

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