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Biochemistry. 2003 Apr 1;42(12):3474-80.

Molecular basis of enzyme inactivation by an endogenous electrophile 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal: identification of modification sites in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

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  • 1Laboratory of Food and Biodynamics, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.


4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major lipid peroxidation-derived reactive aldehyde, is a potent inhibitor of sulfhydryl enzymes, such as the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). It has been suggested that HNE exerts an inhibitory effect on the enzyme due to the modification of the cysteine residue (Cys-149) at the catalytic site generating the HNE-cysteine Michael addition-type adduct [Uchida, K., and Stadtman, E. R. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 6388-6393]. In the study presented here, to elucidate the mechanism for the inactivation of GAPDH by HNE, we attempted to identify the modification sites of the enzyme by monitoring the formation of the HNE Michael adducts by mass spectrometric methods. Incubation of GAPDH (1 mg/mL) with 1 mM HNE in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C resulted in a time-dependent loss of enzyme activity, which was associated with the covalent binding of HNE to the enzyme. To identify the site of modification of GAPDH by HNE, both the HNE-pretreated and untreated GAPDH were digested with trypsin and V8 protease, and the resulting peptides were subjected to electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS). This technique identified five peptides, which contained the HNE adducts at His-164, Cys-244, Cys-281, His-327, and Lys-331 and revealed that both His-164 and Cys-281 were very rapidly modified at 5 min, followed by Cys-244 at 15 min and His-327 and Lys-331 at 30 min. These observations and the observation that the HNE modification of the catalytic center, Cys-149, was not observed suggest that the HNE inactivation of GAPDH is not due to the modification of the catalytic center but to the selective modification of amino acids primarily located in the surface of the GAPDH molecule.

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