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Blood. 2003 Jul 1;102(1):311-9. Epub 2003 Mar 20.

Dual effects of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha on osteolysis and tumor burden in the murine 5TGM1 model of myeloma bone disease.

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  • 1Department of Cellular and Structural Biology (MSC 7762), University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.


Recent data have implicated macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) in multiple myeloma (MM)-associated osteolysis. However, it is unclear whether the chemokine's effects are direct, to enhance osteolysis, or indirect and mediated through a reduction in tumor burden, or both. It is also unclear whether MIP-1alpha requires other factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) for its effects on bone. In murine 5TGM1 (Radl) myeloma-bearing mice, administration of neutralizing anti-MIP-1alpha antibodies reduced tumor load assessed by monoclonal paraprotein titers, prevented splenomegaly, limited development of osteolytic lesions, and concomitantly reduced tumor growth in bone. To determine the effects of MIP-1alpha on bone in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells secreting human MIP-1alpha (CHO/MIP-1alpha) were inoculated into athymic mice. Mice bearing intramuscular CHO/MIP-1alpha tumors developed lytic lesions at distant skeletal sites, which occurred earlier and were larger than those in mice with CHO/empty vector (EV) tumors. When experimental metastases were induced via intracardiac inoculation, mice bearing CHO/MIP-1alpha tumors developed hypercalcemia and significantly more osteolytic lesions than mice bearing CHO/EV tumors, with intramedullary CHO/MIP-1alpha tumors associated with significantly more tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) osteoclasts. Injection of recombinant MIP-1alpha over calvariae of normal mice evoked a striking increase in osteoclast formation, an effect dependent on RANK/RANKL signaling because MIP-1alpha had no effect in RANK-/- mice. Together, these results establish that MIP-1alpha is sufficient to induce MM-like destructive lesions in bone in vivo. Because, in the 5TGM1 model, blockade of osteoclastic resorption in other situations does not decrease tumor burden, we conclude that MIP-1alpha exerts a dual effect in myeloma, on osteoclasts, and tumor cells.

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