Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Development. 2003 May;130(9):1749-58.

A zone of frontonasal ectoderm regulates patterning and growth in the face.

Author information

  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 533 Parnassus Avenue, Suite U-453, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


A fundamental set of patterning genes may define the global organization of the craniofacial region. One of our goals has been to identify these basic patterning genes and understand how they regulate outgrowth of the frontonasal process, which gives rise to the mid and upper face. We identified a molecular boundary in the frontonasal process ectoderm, defined by the juxtaposed domains of Fibroblast growth factor 8 and Sonic hedgehog, which presaged the initial site of frontonasal process outgrowth. Fate maps confirmed that this boundary region later demarcated the dorsoventral axis of the upper beak. Ectopic transplantation of the ectodermal boundary region activated a cascade of molecular events that reprogrammed the developmental fate of neural crest-derived mesenchyme, which resulted in duplications of upper and lower beak structures. We discuss these data in the context of boundary/morphogen models of patterning, and in view of the recent controversy regarding neural crest pre-patterning versus neural crest plasticity.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk