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NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Polybrominated Biphenyls (CAS No. 67774-32-7)(Firemaster FF-1(R)) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).

Abstract

Polybrominated biphenyls are synthetic chemicals used as flame retardants. The technical product used in these studies, Firemaster FF-1(R)), is a mixture of brominated biphenyls. Firemaster FF-1(R)) is a known liver carcinogen in rats and mice and is one of three compounds chosen by the National Toxicology Program to investigate the potential value of perinatal exposures in assessing chemical carcinogenicity. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of polybrominated biphenyls (Firemaster FF-1(R)) were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex. The studies were designed to determine: a) the effects of polybrominated biphenyls in rats and mice receiving adult ( F1) exposure only (a typical carcinogenicity study), b) the toxic and carcinogenic effects of polybrominated biphenyls in rats and mice receiving perinatal (F0) exposure only (dietary exposure of dams prior to breeding and throughout gestation and lactation), and c) the effects of combined perinatal and adult exposure to polybrominated biphenyls. STUDIES IN F344/N RATS: The exposure levels selected for F1 exposure, based on studies of polybrominated biphenyls in the literature, were 3, 10, and 30 ppm. In a preliminary study to determine the perinatal dietary concentrations for the 2-year study, female rats were administered 1 to 30 ppm polybrominated biphenyls in the feed beginning 60 days prior to breeding and continuing throughout gestation, lactation, and up to 4 weeks postweaning. The mean preweaning litter weight of the 30 ppm group was less than 80% of the mean litter weight of the control group at days 0, 4, and 12. At weaning, the mean weight of litters in this group was 80% of the control group mean. The final mean body weights (28 days after weaning) of males and females receiving 30 ppm were 13% to 19% lower than the final mean body weights of the controls. Therefore, dietary concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 10 ppm were selected for the F0 exposure levels in the 2-year study. The eight F0 F1 exposure combinations selected for the 2-year study are shown in the following table (see page 6 of full technical report). Adult-Only Exposure The major organ affected by toxicity of polybrominated biphenyls was the liver. Rats evaluated at 9 months had decreased body weights, hepatomegaly, nonneoplastic histopathologic changes in the liver, mild anemia, increases in serum cholesterol concentrations, and decreases in serum triglyceride concentrations (males only). In rats receiving adult only exposure (F0 F1 concentrations of 0:10 or 0:30 ppm), there were no significant effects on survival. Mean body weights were significantly reduced in 0:10 and 0:30 ppm male rats and in 0:30 ppm female rats. Males and females exposed to 0:10 or 0:30 ppm had increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms (males: 0:0 ppm, 1/50; 0:10 ppm, 12/49; 0:30 ppm, 41/50; females: 0/50,12/50, 39/50). Increased incidences of the following nonneoplastic lesions were associated with the administration of polybrominated biphenyls: eosinophilic foci, cytoplasmic vacuolization, oval cell hyperplasia, and hypertrophy in the liver of males and females; acanthosis, inflammation, and ulceration of the forestomach in exposed males; and cystic endometrial hyperplasia of the uterus in 0:30 ppm females. Perinatal-Only Exposure For rats receiving only perinatal exposure (10:0 ppm), there were no changes in survival or body weights compared to the 0:0 ppm control groups. In female rats, there were no effects on neoplasm incidences, but perinatal exposure was associated with a marginally increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma in male rats (0:0 ppm, 1/50; 10:0 ppm, 5/50). The incidences of nonneoplastic lesions in the liver were increased in exposed males (eosinophilic foci and cytoplasmic vacuolization) and females (eosinophilic foci). Combined Perinatal and Adult Exposure Combined perinatal and adult exposure resulted in marginally reduced survival compared to the 0:0 ppm control group for male rats in the 3:10, 10:10, and 10:30 ppm groups. No significant survival differences were obseant survival differences were observed in female rats. The final mean body weights of male and female rats receiving 3:10,10:10, or 10:30 ppm were lower than those of the 0:0 ppm controls. In male rats, there were no enhancing effects of combined perinatal and adult exposure on the incidence of hepatocellular neoplasms. However, perinatal exposure enhanced the development of liver neoplasms in female rats receiving 10 or 30 ppm adult exposure. A combined analysis of all male and female exposure groups also revealed increased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia that were considered related to polybrominated biphenyls exposure. STUDIES IN B6C3F1 MICE: The exposure levels selected for the F1 exposure, based on studies of polybrominated biphenyls in the literature, were 3,10, and 30 ppm. In a preliminary study to determine the perinatal dietary concentrations for the 2-year study, female C57BL/6N mice were exposed to 1 to 30 ppm polybrominated biphenyls in the feed beginning 60 days before breeding to C3H/HeN males, continuing throughout gestation and lactation and up to 4 weeks postweaning. There were no clear chemical-related effects on survival or growth at any phase of the study; therefore, 0, 3,10, and 30 ppm dietary concentrations were selected for the F0 exposure levels in the 2-year study. The eight F0 F1 exposure combinations selected for the 2-year study are shown in the table below (see page 7 of full technical report). Adult-Only Exposure The major organ affected by toxicity of polybrominated biphenyls was the liver. Animals evaluated at 9 months had lower body weights than the controls, hepatomegaly, and histopathologic changes in the liver. In mice receiving adult-only exposure, no males or females in the 0:30 ppm group survived to the end of the study. Neither survival nor body weights were affected in the 0:10 ppm groups. Males and females receiving 0:10 or 0:30 ppm had markedly increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms (males: 0:0 ppm, 16/50; 0:10 ppm, 48/49; 0:30 ppm, 48/50; females: 5/50, 42/50, 47/48). Increased incidences of nonneoplastic liver lesions including cytomegaly (hypertrophy), fatty change (cytoplasmic vacuolization), bile duct hyperplasia, eosinophilic and clear cell foci, and necrosis of individual hepatocytes were related to treatment with polybrominated biphenyls. Increased incidences and severity of chronic nephropathy in the kidney and excessive hematopoiesis in the spleen of 0:30 ppm males and females were also considered to be related to exposure to polybrominated biphenyls. Perinatal-Only Exposure There were no survival or body weight differences in mice receiving only perinatal exposure (30:0 ppm). Perinatal exposure resulted in significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms in males and females. The incidences of nonneoplastic lesions (cytomegaly, eosinophilic foci, clear cell foci) were increased in males and females. Combined Perinatal and Adult Exposure Combined perinatal and adult exposure resulted in markedly reduced survival for females in the 30:10 ppm group; no mice receiving 30:30 ppm survived to the end of the study. In those groups receiving adult exposure of 30 ppm, mean body weights were not affected. The incidence of hepatocellular neoplasms in male and female mice was significantly increased. At the 9-month interim evaluation the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas was significantly increased in males (0:30 ppm, 1/10; 30:30 ppm, 7/10). The incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in 30:30 ppm females was similar to that of 0:30 ppm females (0:30 ppm, 0/10; 30:30 ppm, 3/10). At the end of the study the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in males was statistically increased (0:30 ppm, 42/50; 30:30 ppm, 48/50). The incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in 30:30 ppm females was statistically decreased compared to that of 0:30 ppm females (0:30 ppm, 46/48; 30:30 ppm, 41/47). It was not possible to assess the potential enhancing effect of combined perinatal and adult exposure on hepatocellular neoplasms because adult-only exposure resulted in such high (84% to 98%) liver neoplasm incidences. CONCLUSIONS: Adult-Only Exposure Under the conditions of these 2-year, adult-only, dietary exposure studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity for polybrominated biphenyls in male and female F344/N rats and male and female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms. Perinatal-Only Exposure Perinatal exposure alone (through dietary administration of 10:0 ppm polybrominated biphenyls to the dams) had no effect on the incidences of neoplasms in female F344/N rats, but in male F344/N rats, perinatal exposure was associated with a marginally increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas that may have been related to chemical administration. In male and female B6C3F1 mice, perinatal exposure to 30:0 ppm polybrominated biphenyls resulted in significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms. The incidences of a number of nonneoplastic lesions in the liver (cytomegaly, eosinophilic focus, and clear cell focus) were increased in male and female B6C3F1 mice. Combined Perinatal and Adult Exposure Combined perinatal and adult dietary exposure to polybrominated biphenyls confirmed findings of the adult-only exposures for the increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. In male F344/N rats, there were no enhancing effects of combined perinatal and adult exposure. However, perinatal exposure enhanced the susceptibility of female F344/N rats receiving adult exposure of 10 or 30 ppm to the induction of liver neoplasms. For male and female F344/N rats, a combined analysis of the incidences of leukemia in the adult-only, perinatal-only, and combined perinatal and adult exposure groups revealed an apparent association between increasing incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia and exposure to polybrominated biphenyls. In male and female B6C3F1 mice, it was not possible to adequately assess the enhancing effects of combined perinatal and adult exposure on hepatocellular neoplasms, because adult-only exposure to 10 or 30 ppm polybrominated biphenyls resulted in high incidences (84% to 98%) of liver neoplasms. However, with increased perinatal exposure, there were increases in the numbers of B6C3F1 mice with hepatocellular carcinomas and in the numbers of B6C3F1 mice with multiple hepatocellular adenomas, which suggests an enhancement of polybrominated biphenyls-related hepatocellular carcinogenicity associated with perinatal exposure. Synonyms: PBBs; polybrominated biphenyl mixture; hexabromobiphenyl (technical grade); brominated biphenyls; polybromobiphenyls

PMID:
12637961
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