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J Gastroenterol. 2002 Nov;37 Suppl 14:118-27.

Regulation of feeding behavior, gastric emptying, and sympathetic nerve activity to interscapular brown adipose tissue by galanin and enterostatin: the involvement of vagal-central nervous system interactions.

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  • 1Third Department of Internal Medicine, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, 3-9 Fuku-ura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan.


Galanin and enterostatin, which are distributed in both the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, regulate the feeding behavior. In the first set of experiments, we investigated the effects of galanin and enterostatin, injected into the third ventricle, on food intake, gastric emptying, and the sympathetic activity of nerves innervating interscapular brown adipose tissue in rats. Galanin dose-dependently increased the intake of a high-fat diet after overnight starvation, but it did not affect low-fat diet intake. In contrast, enterostatin suppressed the intake of the high-fat diet, while intake of the low-fat diet was not affected. Galanin significantly and dose-dependently suppressed gastric emptying rate. However, gastric emptying showed no response to enterostatin. Galanin produced a dose-dependent suppression of sympathetic firing rate. In rats fed a high-fat diet, the injection of enterostatin showed a dose-dependent increase in firing rate. In contrast, animals fed a chow diet showed almost no response. In the second set of experiments, we investigated the role of the hepatic vagus nerve in modulating the peripheral response to enterostatin in rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) enterostatin reduced the intake of a high-fat diet. Immunohistochemical identification indicated that the Fos protein was present in the nucleus tractus solitarius, and parabrachial, paraventricular, and supraoptic nuclei after IP enterostatin. These responses to i.p. enterostatin were blocked by hepatic vagotomy. These results suggest that galanin and enterostatin coordinate to regulate feeding behavior, gastric emptying, and sympathetic activity to interscapular brown adipose tissue via central and peripheral sites of action, one of which was the interaction which was found to exist through the vagal system.

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