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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Feb;4(2):117-26.

Tor signalling in bugs, brain and brawn.

Author information

  • 1Division of Biochemistry, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Erratum in

  • Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Mar;4(3):249.


TOR--a highly conserved atypical protein kinase and the 'target of rapamycin', an immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug--controls cell growth. TOR controls the growth of proliferating yeast, fly and mammalian cells in response to nutrients. Recent findings, however, indicate that TOR also controls the growth of non-proliferating cells, such as neurons and muscle cells. Furthermore, TOR, by associating with regulatory proteins and inhibiting phosphatases, controls the activity of multiphosphorylated effectors.

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