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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2002 Dec;13(6):623-30.

Cytokine release by osteoblast-like cells cultured on implant discs of varying alloy compositions.

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  • 1Department of Orthodontics, GKT Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.



The aims of this study were (i). to assess the morphological features of osteo-blast-like, osteosarcoma cells (cell line SaOS-2) cultured on implant surfaces of varying alloys and (ii). to evaluate the biological activity of these cells, following their adhesion onto these surfaces.


SaOS-2 cells (6 x 104) were grown on titanium discs (diameter 30 mm), each with a surface of differing composition and roughness (commercially pure titanium, titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy, oxide-blasted titanium and Astra-Tech special treatment titanium; the alloys are directly comparable with those used to construct implants). The cells were grown for time periods of 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, the media were collected and the cells were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The media were then assayed (using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay) for the levels of interleukin (IL)-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-18 and osteoprotegerin (OPG) produced by the cells. The discs, with the cells fixed on them, were viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM, x 2.0 k) to evaluate cell morphology.


Following attachment, the cells changed their morphology and released local factors known to activate osteoclasts. Commercially pure titanium stimulated the cells the most and titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy the least. All implant materials stimulated production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-18 above that produced by cells grown on Petri dishes (polystyrene). The titanium-aluminium-vanadium alloy allowed cell attachment but levels of IL-1 in this medium were significantly lower (31.5 +/- 5.2 pg/ml on same day) than cultures with pure titanium (201.8 +/- 11.5 pg/ml at day 5). The same pattern was observed with the IL-6, IL-18, and OPG with polystyrene appearing to stimulate most production of OPG. Titanium-aluminium-vanadium produced the least biological response.

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