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Plant Mol Biol. 2002 Dec;50(6):925-47.

Multi-protein complexes in eukaryotic gene transcription.

Author information

  • Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. ernest.martinez@ucr.edu

Abstract

Specific transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II at eukaryotic protein-coding genes involves the cooperative assembly at the core promoter of more than 40 distinct proteins--with a total mass of over 2 MDa--including RNA polymerase II itself and general/basal transcription initiation factors, to form a stable pre-initiation complex (PIC). In vivo, PIC assembly is a major point of regulation by sequence-specific transcription regulators (activators and repressors) and is hindered by the packaging of promoter DNA into nucleosomes and higher order chromatin structures. Genetic and biochemical studies have recently identified a variety of transcription cofactors/co-regulators (coactivators and corepressors) that interact with sequence-specific regulators and/or various components of the general/basal transcription machinery and are essential for regulated transcription. An emerging view from these studies is that regulators must target two types of transcription cofactors: chromatin-modifying/remodeling cofactors and general cofactors that associate with and/or influence the activities of components of the general/basal transcription machinery. The recent biochemical identification and characterization of many different chromatin-modifying and general transcription cofactors has revealed their often complex multi-subunit nature and a previously unsuspected level of structural and functional redundancy. Another emerging theme is the multi-functional nature of chromatin-modifying cofactor complexes that appear to couple gene-specific transcription to other cellular processes.

PMID:
12516863
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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