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Histol Histopathol. 2003 Jan;18(1):165-71.

Review of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects.

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  • 1First Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Kohasu, Oko-cho, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan. nkuroda@kochi-ms.ac.jp

Abstract

In recent years, the concept of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been established. Chromophobe RCCs account for about 4-6% of all renal tumors. Macroscopically, the cut surface of the tumor is generally grey-beige in color. Histologically, there are two variants (typical and eosinophilic). In the typical variant, large tumor cells with architecture of a compact tubulo-cystic pattern proliferate. The cytoplasm is abundant and shows a fine reticular translucent pattern. The cell border is thick, prominent and eosinophilic. In the eosinophilic variant, tumor cells are smaller and markedly eosinophilic, and a perinuclear halo is often seen. Histochemically, the tumor cells generally show a diffuse and strong reaction for Hale's colloidal iron staining. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells contain many cytoplasmic microvesicles (150-300 nm). In chromosomal analysis, a low chromosome number is characteristic of chromophobe RCCs, due to the frequent occurrence of a combined loss of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21. In differential diagnosis, histological distinction from oncocytomas, which share a common phenotype (intercalated cells of the collecting duct system), is most important. In this diagnostic setting, recent studies have given rise to several problems. Firstly, some cases of coexistent chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma (so-called renal oncocytosis) or cases of oncocytoma with metastasis have recently been reported. Secondly, the existence of chromophobe adenoma, which is the benign counterpart of chromophobe RCC, and an oncocytic variant of chromophobe RCC has recently been suggested. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, to confirm whether chromophobe adenoma actually exists or not, and to identify the key gene that causes chromophobe RCCs.

PMID:
12507296
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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