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Urol Oncol. 2002 Nov-Dec;7(6):239-57.

Primary radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78284, USA.


Prostate cancer in men is similar to breast cancer in women; both cancers rank first, respectively, in incidence and are normally responsive to radiation therapy. In addition, advances in mammography help detect earlier breast cancers, and the development and refinement of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has resulted in early detection of low-stage localized prostate cancers. This has generated debate over the proper management of localized prostate cancer. While there have not been any controlled, prospective, randomized trials of sufficient power to compare the various local therapies, based on the current available data, the three commonly used local modalities, surgery, and external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy (radioactive seed implant), have similar efficacy controlling the disease up to 10 years in many patients. Technological advances in treatment delivery and planning have improved the treatment of prostate cancer with external-beam radiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), ultrasound-guided transperineal implant, or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), as well as proton or neutron beam based therapies.

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