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Infect Immun. 2003 Jan;71(1):504-9.

Cholera toxin induces migration of dendritic cells from the subepithelial dome region to T- and B-cell areas of Peyer's patches.

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  • 1GI Cell Biology Laboratory, Children's Hospital, and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


Intestinal M cells deliver macromolecules, particles, and pathogens into the subepithelial dome (SED) region of Peyer's patch mucosa, an area rich in dendritic cells (DCs). We tested whether uptake of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) or live Salmonella bacteria can induce DC migration within Peyer's patches. Virus-sized, fluorescent polystyrene microparticles were efficiently transported by M cells and ingested by CD11c(+), CD11b(-), and CD8a(-) DCs in the SED region. DCs loaded with microparticles remained in the SED for up to 14 days. CT (but not the CT B subunit) and live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria induced migration of the microparticle-loaded DCs from the SED region into underlying B-cell follicles and adjacent parafollicular T-cell zones. Our data provide the first demonstration that DCs move in response to enterotoxin adjuvants and live bacteria that enter the mucosa via M cells.

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