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Gene. 2002 Nov 13;301(1-2):43-51.

The human transcription factor activation protein-2 gamma (AP-2gamma): gene structure, promoter, and expression in mammary carcinoma cell lines.

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  • 1Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research, MetroHealth Campus, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA.


Human activation protein-2 gamma (hAP-2gamma) is a key developmental transcription factor. It has been implicated in mammary carcinogenesis through its regulation of HER-2/neu proto-oncogene and estrogen receptor gene The hAP-2gamma gene is located on human chromosome 20q13.2. We cloned this gene, deduced its genomic structure, and mapped and analyzed its promoter. The hAP-2gamma gene contains seven exons. Primer extension analysis and 5'-rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends studies show that there is a single transcription start site 232 nt upstream of the translational start codon. The promoter lacks canonical binding sites for basal transcription factors such as TATA and CCAAT boxes, but contains a cluster of CpG islands and may rely on an initiator element for transcription. Deletion analyses of the promoter and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene assays indicate that the sequence between -746 and -575 is important for its expression in mammary carcinoma cell lines. The hAP-2gamma gene is marginally activated in these cells suggesting that increased transcription partly contributes to its abundance. Architecture of the gene and promoter strikingly resembles that of hAP-2alpha, which is located on a different chromosome, suggesting a cognate origin. hAP-2alpha and hAP-2gamma have some common and some distinct roles in cells, and are likely the remarkable results of gene duplication, translocation and functional divergence through evolution.

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