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Vet Microbiol. 2003 Mar 20;92(1-2):1-17.

Equid herpesvirus (EHV-1) live vaccine strain C147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following EHV types 1 and 4 challenges.

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  • 1Intervet UK Ltd., The Elms, Thicket Road, Houghton, Huntingdon PE28 2BQ, Cambridgeshire, UK.


The temperature sensitive and host range mutant clone 147 of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) was assessed for its ability to protect conventional, susceptible adult horses against respiratory infection by EHV-1 and equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4). Intranasal (IN) vaccination with 5.2 log(10) TCID(50) did not cause adverse clinical reactions although a limited virus shedding and viraemia (leukocytes) was observed in 11 of 15 and 10 of 15 vaccinated horses respectively. All 15 vaccinated horses showed a significant seroresponse to both EHV-1 and EHV-4 for virus neutralising (VN) antibody. None of 14 control horses shed virus or became viraemic or seroconverted prior to challenge. EHV-1 challenge (dose 6.0 log(10)) 6 weeks after vaccination resulted in pyrexia in all eight control horses while eight vaccinated horses remained unaffected. Six control horses developed nasal discharge, five of which were mucopurulent nasal discharge (mean duration 3.2 days) which also occurred in four vaccinated horses for 1 day. All eight control horses shed challenge EHV-1 at a significantly higher level (group mean titre 2.6+/-0.4 log(10) TCID(50) per sample) and for much longer (mean duration 4.8+/-1.5 days) than that (group mean titre 1.4+/-0.8 log(10) TCID(50) per sample and mean duration 1.5+/-0.5 days) in six vaccinated horses. Furthermore, all eight control horses became viraemic (mean duration 2.9 days) but viraemia did not occur in eight vaccinated horses. Following EHV-1 challenge, all eight control horses showed a significant VN antibody rise to both EHV-1 and EHV-4 but this occurred in only one vaccinated horse and to EHV-4 only. In EHV-4 challenge (dose of 4.2 log(10) TCID(50)) of a separate pair of seven vaccinated and six control horses, 6 weeks after EHV-1 vaccination resulted in pyrexia (mean duration 2.3 days) and nasal discharge (mean duration 1.8 days) in three and five control horses respectively but the only reaction observed in the vaccinated group was nasal discharge for 1 day in one animal. All six control animals shed virus (mean titre 2.5+/-0.6 log(10) TCID(50) per sample and mean duration 2+/-0.6 days) compared to one vaccinated animal. Although EHV-4 viraemia is rare, 3 of 6 control horses became viraemic after EHV-4 challenge but this was not observed in vaccinated horses. After EHV-4 challenge 3 and 5 of 6 control horses seroconverted for VN antibody to EHV-1 and EHV-4 respectively; a non-responsive control horse had high level of pre-existing VN antibody to EHV-4. However, only 1 of 7 vaccinated horses showed a significant antibody rise and only to EHV-4.

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