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J Biol Chem. 2003 May 2;278(18):15661-8. Epub 2002 Dec 7.

Mammalian tolloid metalloproteinase, and not matrix metalloprotease 2 or membrane type 1 metalloprotease, processes laminin-5 in keratinocytes and skin.

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  • 1Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University, 269 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Laminin-5, a major adhesive ligand for epithelial cells, undergoes processing of its gamma2 and alpha3 chains. This study investigated the mechanism of laminin-5 processing by keratinocytes. BI-1 (BMP-1 isoenzyme inhibitor-1), a selective inhibitor of a small group of astacin-like metalloproteinases, which includes bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1), mammalian Tolloid (mTLD), mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL-1), and mammalian Tolloid-like 2 (mTLL-2), inhibited the processing of laminin-5 gamma2 and alpha3 chains in keratinocyte cultures in a dose-dependent manner. In a proteinase survey, all BMP-1 isoenzymes processed human laminin-5 gamma2 and alpha3 chains to 105- and 165-kDa fragments, respectively. In contrast, MT1-MMP and MMP-2 did not cleave the gamma2 chain of human laminin-5 but processed the rat laminin gamma2 chain to an 80-kDa fragment. An immunoblot and quantitative PCR survey of the BMP-1 isoenzymes revealed expression of mTLD in primary keratinocyte cultures but little or no expression of BMP-1, mTLL-1, or mTLL-2. mTLD was shown to cleave the gamma2 chain at the same site as the previously identified BMP-1 cleavage site. In addition, mTLD/BMP-1 null mice were shown to have deficient laminin-5 processing. Together, these data identify laminin-5 as a substrate for mTLD, suggesting a role for laminin-5 processing by mTLD in the skin.

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