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Endocr Rev. 2002 Dec;23(6):763-86.

Modulation of growth factor/cytokine synthesis and signaling by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3): implications in cell growth and differentiation.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.


Distinct from its classic functions in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism as a systemic hormone, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] is involved in the local control and regulation of cellular growth and differentiation in various tissues, including epidermis (keratinocytes) and bone (osteoblasts and osteoclasts). In this review, the impact of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on growth factor/cytokine synthesis and signaling is discussed, particularly as it pertains to bone cells and keratinocytes. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) not only regulates growth factor/cytokine synthesis but may also alter growth factor signaling. Recently discovered examples for such interactions are the interactions between the vitamin D receptor and the mothers against decapentaplegic-related proteins that function downstream of TGFbeta receptors. Inhibitory effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on keratinocytes through TGFbeta activation and IL-1alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 suppression may provide a rationale for its beneficial effects in the treatment of hyperproliferative skin disorders, whereas stimulatory effects through the epidermal growth factor-related family members and platelet-derived growth factor may be operative in its beneficial effects in skin atrophy and wound healing. Modulation of cytokines and growth factors by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) during bone remodeling plays an important role in the coupling of osteoblastic bone formation with osteoclastic resorption to maintain bone mass.

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