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Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46(7):943-7.

Bmp, Fgf and Wnt signalling in programmed cell death and chondrogenesis during vertebrate limb development: the role of Dickkopf-1.

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  • 1Institut für Entwicklungs- und Molekularbiologie der Tiere (EMT), Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf, Germany.


Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) is a potent head inducer in Xenopus. This effect can be attributed to its capability to specifically inhibit Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. Recent data point to a crucial role for Dkk-1 in the control of programmed cell death during vertebrate limb development. In this paper, we present a comparative expression analysis of Dkk-1, Bmp-4 and Sox-9 as well as data on the regulation of Dkk-1 by Wnt. Finally, we summarize the current knowledge of its potential function in the developing limb and present a model how the interplay of the Bmp, Fgf and Wnt signalling pathways might differentially regulate programmed cell death versus chondrogenic differentiation in limb mesodermal cells.

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