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Biosens Bioelectron. 2003 Jan;18(1):43-52.

A three-enzyme microelectrode sensor for detecting purine release from central nervous system.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.


As the purines, in particular adenosine, are important signaling agents in the nervous system we have devised a new biosensor for directly measuring their production in real time during physiological activity. Our amperometric adenosine biosensor is made by entrapping 3 enzymes (xanthine oxidase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase) in a composite lactobionamide and amphiphillic polypyrrole matrix around a Pt microelectrode. The resulting sensors are small (25-100 microm diameter), fast responding (10-90% rise time, 2+/-0.23 s), sensitive (100-222 mA M(-1) cm(-2)) and stable (100% activity after 5 days). The sensor was used in vivo to demonstrate the spatial localization of release of adenosine from Xenopus embryo spinal cord during fictive swimming.

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