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Neuroreport. 2002 Nov 15;13(16):2079-84.

Identification of addicsin/GTRAP3-18 as a chronic morphine-augmented gene in amygdala.

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  • 1Gene Discovery Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan.


Using subtractive cloning, we identified a 1.4 kb mRNA that was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues; this mRNA was highly up-regulated in amygdala nuclei in mice when morphine was repeatedly administered but not when an opiate-receptor antagonist was co-administered. The mRNA encodes a 23 kDa protein, designated 'addicsin'. This contains two putative PKC-phosphorylation motifs and several hydrophobic regions, and was recovered in a soluble protein fraction of brain lysate. Its primary structure showed 98% identity with that of rat glutamate-transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), a putative modulator of neural glutamate-transporter EAAC1. Up-regulation of addicsin expression by morphine may affect glutamate uptake in the amygdala, causing mice to develop morphine tolerance and dependence.

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