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J Food Prot. 2002 Nov;65(11):1766-70.

Inhibition of heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in fried ground beef patties by garlic and selected garlic-related sulfur compounds.

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  • 1Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824-1224, USA.


The effects of garlic and selected organosulfur compounds (diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, diallyl sulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, allyl mercaptan, cysteine, and cystine) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in fried ground beef patties were evaluated. Minced garlic cloves (ca. 4.8 to 16.7%, wt/wt) or organosulfur compounds (0.67 mmol) were added directly to ground beef. Patties (100 g) were fried at 225 degrees C (surface temperature) for 10 min per side. Two patties were fried for each replication, and five replicates were analyzed for each treatment. For each replicate, four subsamples were analyzed (two unspiked subsamples for concentration and two spiked subsamples for the recovery of HAA standards). The volatile sulfur compounds significantly (P < 0.05) reduced concentrations of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by reductions of 46 to 81%, while average reductions of 35, 22, and 71%, were achieved with cystine, cysteine, and whole garlic, respectively. The volatile sulfur compounds reduced concentrations of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline by 34 to 67%, while reductions of 25, 19, and 63% (P < 0.05) were achieved with cystine, cysteine, and whole garlic, respectively. These studies confirm that garlic and some organosulfur compounds have the potential to reduce HAA formation incooked beef patties.

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