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J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Nov;47(5):709-14.

Oxidized citrus oil (R-limonene): a frequent skin sensitizer in Europe.

Author information

  • 1Occupational Dermatology, National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Peel oil from citrus fruits consists of R-(+)-limonene, which is one of the most commonly used fragrance materials in technical products and in fine fragrances. This substance forms allergenic oxidation products during handling and storage.

OBJECTIVE:

We wanted to study the frequency of allergic reactions to oxidized R-(+)-limonene in patients with dermatitis and find a suitable test preparation.

METHOD:

Patch testing with oxidized R-(+)-limonene was performed on 2273 patients at 4 dermatology clinics in Europe.

RESULTS:

Of the consecutive patients tested, 3.8% to 3.9% had positive reactions in two of the clinics; 6.5% had positive reactions in the third clinic; and 0.3% had positive reactions in the fourth clinic. A total of 63 patients showed positive reactions. In total, 57% of the patients did not react to fragrance mix or balsam of Peru. We recommend testing with 3% oxidized R-(+)-limonene in patients referred for patch testing.

CONCLUSION:

The high frequency of oxidized limonene allergy provides clinical evidence for the European classification of R-(+)-limonene that contains oxidation products as skin sensitizers.

PMID:
12399762
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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