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Nature. 2002 Oct 24;419(6909):803-7.

Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy.

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  • 1Institut für Photonik, Technische Universität Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27, A-1040 Wien, Austria.


The characteristic time constants of the relaxation dynamics of core-excited atoms have hitherto been inferred from the linewidths of electronic transitions measured by continuous-wave extreme ultraviolet or X-ray spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate that a laser-based sampling system, consisting of a few-femtosecond visible light pulse and a synchronized sub-femtosecond soft X-ray pulse, allows us to trace these dynamics directly in the time domain with attosecond resolution. We have measured a lifetime of 7.9(-0.9)(+1.0) fs of M-shell vacancies of krypton in such a pump-probe experiment.

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