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Fam Process. 2002 Fall;41(3):389-404.

Attachment, mastery, and interdependence: a model of parenting processes.

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  • 1Ackerman Institute for the Family, Early Prevention and Enrichment Project, 149 East 78th Street, New York 10021-0405, USA.


A democratic nation needs an interdependent citizenry who are not only competent but who also can live together cooperatively with an eye toward what will benefit the whole as well as the self. In this article, the concept of interdependence is adopted as the central goal of parenting. The Parenting Processes Model is then presented, specifying how caregivers help children develop this interdependence. This work draws upon and integrates the work of a number of theoreticians, researchers, and clinicians, with the central focus on the work of John Bowlby, Alfred Adler, and Lev Vygotsky.

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