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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Oct 16;40(8):1389-94.

Hospital outcomes in patients presenting with congestive heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction: a report from the Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI-2).

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.



The purpose of this study was to examine treatment and outcomes in patients admitted to the hospital with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF).


Although cardiogenic shock complicating AMI has been studied extensively, the hospital course of patients presenting with CHF is less well established.


The Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI-2) was analyzed to determine hospital outcomes for patients with ST-elevation AMI admitted with CHF (Killip classes II or III).


Of 190,518 patients with AMI, 36,303 (19.1%) had CHF on admission. Patients presenting with CHF were older (72.6 +/- 12.5 vs. 63.2 +/- 13.5 years), more often female (46.8% vs. 32.1%), had longer time to hospital presentation (2.80 +/- 2.6 vs. 2.50 +/- 2.4 h), and had higher prevalence of anterior/septal AMI (38.8% vs. 33.3%), diabetes (33.1% vs. 19.5%), and hypertension (54.6% vs. 46.1%) (all p < 0.0005). Also, they had longer lengths of stay (8.1 +/- 7.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 5.3 days, p < 0.00005) and greater risk for in-hospital death (21.4% vs. 7.2%; p < 0.0005). Patients with CHF were less likely to receive aspirin (75.7% vs. 89.0%), heparin (74.6% vs. 91.1%), oral beta-blockers (27.0% vs. 41.7%), fibrinolytics (33.4% vs. 58.0%), or primary angioplasty (8.6% vs. 14.6%), and more likely to receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (25.4% vs. 13.0%). Congestive heart failure on admission was one of the strongest predictors of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 1.75).


Patients with AMI presenting with CHF are at higher risk for adverse in-hospital outcomes. Despite this, they are less likely to be treated with reperfusion therapy and medications with proven mortality benefit.

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