Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Lancet Infect Dis. 2002 Oct;2(10):628-35.

The meaning of microbial exposure, infection, colonisation, and disease in clinical practice.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, and Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, New York 10461, USA.


The basic lexicon of infectious diseases includes the terms exposure, infection, colonisation, and disease, which are used to describe the clinical states in which the presence of a microbe in a host is suspected or discovered. Therefore, the lexicon is used to articulate an implied association between a host and a microbe. However, since it is often difficult to use the available clinical and diagnostic tools to discriminate the different ways in which microbes can exist in a host, the lexicon is often used in an ambiguous and imprecise manner. Another factor contributing to imprecise use of the lexicon is that microbial factors are often held responsible for disease pathogenesis. This relegates the part that the host plays in microbial pathogenesis to an exception, which leads to the need for qualification and modification of the terminology of infectious diseases. Recently, we proposed the "damage-response framework" to incorporate the contributions of both the host and the microbe in microbial pathogenesis in a synthesis whereby host damage was used as the common denominator to describe the outcome of the host-microbe relation. In this article, we illustrate how the application of the damage-response framework to clinical infectious diseases can clarify and make more precise the terminology used to convey the outcome of microbial infection in clinical practice.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk