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Microbes Infect. 2002 Sep;4(11):1133-40.

The immune response to infection with Treponema pallidum, the stealth pathogen.

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  • 1Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, MC 3710, University of Connecticut Medical School, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, USA. jsalaza@ccmckids.org


Cutaneous immunobiology and spirochetal molecular biology have allowed investigators to propose a conceptual framework for the development of both the innate and adaptive immune response to Treponema pallidum infection. While some clinical manifestations can be attributed to humoral responses, most can be attributed to a combination of local innate and adaptive cellular immunity.

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