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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Oct;43(10):3174-80.

Prevalence rates of refractive errors in Sumatra, Indonesia.

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  • 1Department of Community, Occupational, and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.



To determine the prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia in a prevalence survey of adults in Sumatra, Indonesia.


A population-based prevalence survey of 1043 adults 21 or more years of age was conducted in five rural villages and one provincial town of the Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. A one-stage household cluster sampling procedure was used wherein 100 households were selected from each village or town. Refractive error measurements were obtained with one of two handheld autorefractors. Household interviews were conducted to obtain information on relevant lifestyle risk factors.


The age-adjusted overall prevalence rates of myopia (SE [spherical equivalent] at least -1.0 D), hyperopia (SE of at least +1.0 D), astigmatism (cylinder of at least -1.0 D), and anisometropia (SE difference of +1.0 D) were 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.4-28.8), 9.2% (95% CI: 7.4-11.0), 18.5% (95% CI: 16.2-20.8), and 15.1% (95% CI: 12.9-17.4), respectively. The age-adjusted overall prevalence rate of high myopia (SE at least -6.0 D) was 0.8% (95% CI: 0.2-1.5). In a multiple logistic regression model, myopia rates varied with age and increased with income. Hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia rates were independently higher in older adults.


The prevalence rates of myopia in provincial Sumatra are higher than the rates in white populations, but lower than the rates in other urbanized Asian countries such as Singapore. The prevalence rate of high myopia is lower than in most other populations, and other refractive errors are common.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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