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Biosens Bioelectron. 2002 Oct;17(10):893-9.

Use of an electronic nose system for diagnoses of urinary tract infections.

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  • 1Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Cranfield University Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT, UK.


The use of volatile production patterns produced by bacterial contaminants in urine samples were examined using electronic nose technology. In two experiments 25 and 45 samples from patients were analysed for specific bacterial contaminants using agar culture techniques and the major UTI bacterial species identified. These samples were also analysed by incubation in a volatile generation test tube system for 4-5 h. The volatile production patterns were then analysed using an electronic nose system with 14 conducting polymer sensors. In the first experiment analysis of the data using a neural network (NN) enabled identification of all but one of the samples correctly when compared to the culture information. Four groups could be distinguished, i.e. normal urine, Escherichia coli infected, Proteus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. In the second experiment it was again possible to use NN systems to examine the volatile production patterns and identify 18 of 19 unknown UTI cases. Only one normal patient sample was mis-identified as an E. coli infected sample. Discriminant function analysis also differentiated between normal urine samples, that infected with E. coli and with Staphylococcus spp. This study has shown the potential for early detection of microbial contaminants in urine samples using electronic nose technology for the first time. These findings will have implications for the development of rapid systems for use in clinical practice.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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