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Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002 Oct;283(4):L799-805.

Alveolar macrophage activation after trauma-hemorrhage and sepsis is dependent on NF-kappaB and MAPK/ERK mechanisms.

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  • 1Center for Surgical Research and Departments of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.


The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of morbidity after injury. We hypothesized that alveolar macrophage (AMPhi) chemokine and cytokine release after hemorrhage and sepsis is regulated by NF-kappaB and MAPK. Adult male rats underwent soft tissue trauma and hemorrhagic shock (~90 min) followed by crystalloid resuscitation. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) 20 h after resuscitation. AMPhi were harvested, and TNF-alpha, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 release and serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels were measured at 5 h after HCLP. Lung tissues were analyzed for activation of NF-kappaB, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet/dry weight ratio. In control animals, AMPhi were stimulated with LPS with or without inhibitors of NF-kappaB and MAPK. Serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels and spontaneous AMPhi TNF-alpha and MIP-2 release were elevated (P < 0.05) after HCLP, concomitantly with the development of lung edema and leukocyte activation. Activation of NF-kappaB increased in lungs from the hemorrhage and CLP group compared with shams. Inhibition of NF-kappaB or the upstream MAPK significantly decreased LPS-stimulated AMPhi activation. Because enhanced release of inflammatory mediators by AMPhi may contribute to ARDS after severe trauma, inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways represents a target to attenuate organ injury under those conditions.

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