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Oncology (Williston Park). 2002 Aug;16(8):1057-66; discussion 1066, 1068-70.

What is the optimal therapy for childhood AML?

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  • 1Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.


The use of intensive therapy overa brief period of time has produced dramatic improvements in outcome for pediatric patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), as has been demonstrated in studies by the major cooperative groups in the United States and Europe. Still, despite high-intensity chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, only about half of the children diagnosed with AML are cured. Future improvements are unlikely to come from further increases in chemotherapy intensity. Alternative approaches, such as risk-directed therapy based on different prognostic criteria; differentiation therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, Vesanoid), arsenic trioxide (Trisenox), or azacytidine; and immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, tumor vaccines, or cytokines may lead to further advances.

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