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J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 25;277(43):40549-56. Epub 2002 Aug 19.

Opposing effects of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and -2 metabolites on MAPK signaling in prostate. Alteration in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

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  • 1Eicosanoid Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, NIEHS/National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.


Human prostate tumors have elevated levels of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) and data suggest that 15-LOX-1 may play a role in the development of prostate cancer. In contrast, 15-LOX-2 expression is higher in normal rather than in tumor prostate tissue and appears to suppress cancer development. We recently reported that 13-(S)-HODE, the 15-LOX-1 metabolite, up-regulates the MAP kinase signaling pathway and subsequently down-regulates PPARgamma in human colorectal carcinoma cells. To determine whether this mechanism is applicable to prostate cancer and what the effects of 15-LOX-2 are, we investigated the effect of 15-LOX-1, 15-LOX-2, and their metabolites on epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling in prostate carcinoma cells. In PC3 cells, 13-(S)-HODE, a 15-LOX-1 metabolite, up-regulated MAP kinase while in contrast 15-(S)-HETE, a 15-LOX-2 metabolite, down-regulated MAP kinase. As a result, 13-(S)-HODE increased PPARgamma phosphorylation while a subsequent decrease in PPARgamma phosphorylation was observed with 15-(S)-HETE. Thus, 15-LOX metabolites have opposing effects on the regulation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway and a downstream target of MAP kinase signaling like PPARgamma. In addition to the EGF signaling pathway, the IGF signaling pathway appears to be linked to prostate cancer. 13-(S)-HODE and 15-(S)-HETE up-regulate or down-regulate, respectively, both the MAPK and Akt pathways after activation with IGF-1. Thus, the effect of these lipid metabolites is not solely restricted to EGF signaling and not solely restricted to MAPK signaling. These results provide a plausible mechanism to explain the apparent opposing effects 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 play in prostate cancer.

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