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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 Sep;93(3):1159-67.

Invited Review: Autocrine/paracrine IGF-I and skeletal muscle adaptation.

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  • 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.


This brief review presents the basic premises suggesting that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), functioning in an autocrine/paracrine mode, is an important mediator of skeletal muscle adaptation. Key intracellular signaling mechanisms associated with ligation of the primary IGF-I receptor are highlighted to illustrate the mechanisms by which IGF-I may promote muscle hypertrophy. In addition, a number of recent findings are presented that highlight the potential for interactions between IGF-I-related signaling pathways and intracellular signaling mechanisms activated by cytokines or hormonal systems.

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