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Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2002 Aug;5(4):300-7.

Constitutive plant toxins and their role in defense against herbivores and pathogens.

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  • 1Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Department of Biochemistry, Winzerlaer Strasse 10, Beutenberg Campus, D-07745 Jena, Germany.


Most recent investigations have focused on induced, rather than constitutive, plant defenses. Yet significant research has helped to illuminate some of the principal characteristics of constitutive defenses, including mechanisms of action and synergistic effects, as well as strategies used by herbivores and pathogens to circumvent them.

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