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J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 11;277(41):38095-103. Epub 2002 Aug 6.

Snf1 protein kinase regulates Adr1 binding to chromatin but not transcription activation.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7350, USA.


The yeast transcriptional activator Adr1 controls the expression of genes required for ethanol, glycerol, and fatty acid utilization. We show that Adr1 acts directly on the promoters of ADH2, ACS1, GUT1, CTA1, and POT1 using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The yeast homolog of the AMP-activated protein kinase, Snf1, promotes Adr1 chromatin binding in the absence of glucose, and the protein phosphatase complex, Glc7.Reg1, represses its binding in the presence of glucose. A post-translational process is implicated in the regulation of Adr1 binding activity. Chromatin binding by Adr1 is not the only step in ADH2 transcription that is regulated by glucose repression. Adr1 can bind to chromatin in repressed conditions in the presence of hyperacetylated histones. To study steps subsequent to promoter binding we utilized miniAdr1 transcription factors to characterize Adr1-dependent transcription in vitro. Yeast nuclear extracts prepared from glucose-repressed and glucose-derepressed cells are equally capable of supporting miniAdr1-dependent transcription and pre-initiation complex formation. Nuclear extracts prepared from a snf1 mutant support miniAdr1-dependent transcription but are partially defective in the formation of pre-initiation complexes with Mediator components being particularly depleted. We conclude that Snf1 regulates Adr1-dependent transcription primarily at the level of chromatin binding.

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