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J Affect Disord. 2002 Sep;71(1-3):19-27.

Guilt, fear, submission, and empathy in depression.

Author information

  • 1The Wright Institute, 2728 Durant Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA. lynnoc@aol.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study compares self-focused motivations (fear of negative evaluation, social comparison, and fear of envy) and other-focused motivations (empathy and interpersonal guilt) in submissive behavior and depression.

METHODS:

The Beck Depression Inventory, Submissive Behavior Scale, Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Social Comparison Scale, Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire, and Interpersonal Reactivity Inventory were administered to 50 patients hospitalized for depression and 52 students.

RESULTS:

Depressed patients were significantly higher in survivor guilt, omnipotent responsibility guilt, submissive behavior, fear of negative evaluation, fear of envy, and empathic distress, and lower in social comparison.

LIMITATIONS:

This research was limited in that it was a correlational study.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that altruistic concern about others may be an important factor in depression and submissive behavior. Evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

PMID:
12167497
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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