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Gene. 2002 Jun 26;293(1-2):181-9.

Structural characterization of GnRH loci in the medaka genome.

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  • 1Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.


To help clarify the origin of a third gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) paralog found only in the teleost lineage, we have characterized GnRH loci in a teleost species, the medaka Oryzias latipes, and compared corresponding regions of the medaka and human genomes. Three GnRHs for medaka-type GnRH (mdGnRH), chicken-II-type GnRH (cGnRH-II), and salmon-type GnRH (sGnRH) exist as single-copy genes and reside on separate chromosomes in the medaka genome. Both medaka mdGnRH and human mGnRH are closely linked to FLJ20038 encoding a hypothetical protein, and both cGnRH-IIs in the medaka and humans are adjacent to PTP(alpha) for protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha. These conserved syntenies demonstrate that mdGnRH and cGnRH-II in teleosts are orthologous to mGnRH and cGnRH-II in tetrapods, respectively. On the other hand, the third paralogous GnRH in the medaka, sGnRH, is adjacent to PTP(epsilon), a paralog of PTP(alpha). Although humans possess PTP(epsilon) on 10q26, no sGnRH-like sequence was found in the human genome databases. Therefore a gene duplication that gave rise to the third paralogous GnRH likely occurred before the divergence of teleosts and tetrapods, and it has been lost only in the tetrapod lineage. Additionally, together with the prior observations that like GnRH, PTP(alpha)/PTP(epsilon) are strongly expressed in neural and tumor cells and that GnRH can increase PTP activity, the current data suggests that the physically linked cGnRH-II/sGnRH and PTP(alpha)/PTP(epsilon) are also functionally linked.

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