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Int J Cancer. 2002 Jul 10;100(2):136-9.

Promoting effects of monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and trimethylarsine oxide on induction of rat liver preneoplastic glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci: a possible reactive oxygen species mechanism.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan.


Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) is a major metabolite of inorganic arsenicals, which are epidemiologically significant chemicals in relation to liver cancer in mammals. The present study was conducted to determine the promoting effects of organic arsenicals related to DMA [monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO)] on rat liver carcinogenesis using a liver medium-term bioassay (the Ito test). Male, 10-week-old, F344 rats were given a single i.p. injection of diethylnitrosamine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. as an initiator. Starting 2 weeks thereafter they received 100 ppm of MMA, DMA or TMAO in their drinking water, or no supplement as a control, for 6 weeks. All animals underwent 2/3 partial hepatectomy in week 3 after initiation. Quantification of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci as preneoplastic lesions in liver sections revealed significantly increased numbers and areas in all 3 treated groups compared with controls. Hepatic microsome cytochrome P-450 content was markedly increased with all 3 arsenic treatments. Markedly elevated CYP 2B1 protein levels and CYP 2B1/2 mRNA levels were thus observed in all cases. The potency of promotion was similar for MMA, DMA and TMAO. Since hydroxyradicals were found to be generated in the relatively early phase while methylated arsenicals were metabolized in liver, the resultant oxidative stress might have promoted lesion development.

Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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