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Am J Physiol. 1975 Dec;229(6):1609-13.

Stimulation of intestinal smooth muscle by atropine, procaine, and tetrodotoxin.


In order to determine whether or not atropine, procaine, and tetrodotoxin (TTX) can stimulate intestinal smooth muscle directly, we examined the effects of these drugs on the mechanical and electrical activities of several types of cat intestinal smooth muscle preparations. The preparations consisted of isolated rings of 1) intact intestinal wall, 2) intact longitudinal and circular muscle, 3) ganglion-free circular muscle, and 4) ganglion-free circular muscle devoid of its dense layer and plexus muscularis profundus. Atropine and procaine (greater than 10(-4) M) stimulated all four types of preparation. On the other hand, TTX (up to 5 X 10(-6) M) stimulated only preparations 1 and 2. It is concluded that whereas atropine and procaine can directly stimulate intestinal smooth muscle, the excitatory effect of TTX is neurally mediated.

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