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Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Aug;283(2):C545-51.

GSK-3beta negatively regulates skeletal myotube hypertrophy.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, and the Dalton Cardiovascular Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.


To determine whether changes in glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylation contribute to muscle hypertrophy, we delineated the effects of GSK-3beta activity on C(2)C(12) myotube size. We also examined possible insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling of NFAT (nuclear factors of activated T cells)-inducible gene activity and possible modulation of NFAT activation by GSK-3beta. Application of IGF-I (250 ng/ml) or LiCl (10 mM) alone (i.e., both inhibit GSK-3beta activity) increased the area of C(2)C(12) myotubes by 80 and 85%, respectively. The application of IGF-I (250 ng/ml) elevated GSK-3beta phosphorylation and reduced GSK-3beta kinase activity by approximately 800% and approximately 25%, respectively. LY-294002 (100 microM) and wortmannin (150 microM), specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, attenuated IGF-I-induced GSK-3beta phosphorylation by 67 and 92%, respectively. IGF-I suppressed the kinase activity of GSK-3beta. IGF-I (250 ng/ml), but not LiCl (10 mM), induced an increase in NFAT-activated luciferase reporter activity. Cotransfection of a constitutively active GSK-3beta (cGSK-3beta) inhibited the induction by IGF-I of NFAT-inducible reporter activity. LiCl, which inhibits GSK-3beta, removed the block by cGSK-3beta on IGF-I-inducible NFAT-responsive reporter gene activity. These data suggest that the IGF-I-induced increase in skeletal myotube size is signaled, in part, through the inhibition of GSK-3beta.

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