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Nat Rev Genet. 2002 Jul;3(7):524-32.

Pancreatic organogenesis--developmental mechanisms and implications for therapy.

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  • 1Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.


The pancreas is a mixed exocrine and endocrine gland that controls many homeostatic functions. The exocrine pancreas produces and secretes digestive enzymes, whereas the endocrine compartment consists of four distinct hormone-producing cell types. Studies that further our knowledge of the basic mechanisms that underlie the formation of the pancreas will be crucial for understanding the development and homeostasis of this organ and of the mechanisms that cause diabetes. This information is also pivotal for any attempt to generate functional insulin-producing beta-cells that are suitable for transplantation.

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