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Health Psychol. 2002 Jul;21(4):384-92.

Psychosocial antecedents of tobacco chipping.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-1104, USA.


The authors examined adolescent antecedents and adult correlates of tobacco "chipping" compared with heavy smoking, experimental smoking, and nonsmoking in a representative community sample. As adolescents, future "chippers" had some smoking risk factors (attitudes, health beliefs, smoking intentions, and tolerance for deviance) and several protective factors (high values for academic success, internal locus of control, supportive relationships, and little smoking among peers and parents). As adults, risk factors included lessened belief in nicotine's addictiveness, lower conscientiousness, higher extraversion, and lower positive affect and life satisfaction; protective factors included high levels of educational attainment and employment and low levels of negative affect and stress (men only). Thus, chippers experience a complex mixture of risk and protective factors for smoking.

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