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Mol Biol Evol. 2002 Jul;19(7):1026-40.

Isolation and characterization of the genomic region from Drosophila kuntzei containing the Adh and Adhr genes.

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  • 1Population Genetics, Center for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, Biological Center, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.


The nucleotide sequences of the Adh and Adhr genes of Drosophila kuntzei were derived from combined overlapping sequences of clones isolated from a genomic library and from cloned PCR and inverse-PCR fragments. Only a proximal promoter was detected upstream of the Adh gene, indicating that D. kuntzei Adh is regulated by a one-promoter system. Further upstream of the Adh structural gene, an adult enhancer region (AAE) was found that contains most of the regulatory sequences described for AAEs of other Drosophila species. Analysis of the ADH protein showed an amino acid change from valine to threonine in the active site at position 189 which is also found in D. funebris but is otherwise unique among Drosophila. This difference alone may be responsible for the very low ADH activity found in this species and may cause a difference in substrate usage pattern. Codon bias in Adh and Adhr was comparable and found to be very low compared with other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that D. kuntzei is closest related to D. funebris and D. immigrans. The time of divergence between D. kuntzei and D. funebris was estimated to be 14.2-20.2 Myr and that between D. kuntzei-D. funebris and D. immigrans to be 30.8-44.0 Myr. An analysis of the genetic variation in the Adh gene and upstream sequences of four European strains showed that this gene was highly variable. Overall nucleotide diversity (pi) was 0.0139, which is two times higher than that in D. melanogaster.

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