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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25;99(13):8814-9. Epub 2002 Jun 19.

Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae: responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.


The complex gene expression responses of Anopheles gambiae to microbial and malaria challenges, injury, and oxidative stress (in the mosquito and/or a cultured cell line) were surveyed by using cDNA microarrays constructed from an EST-clone collection. The expression profiles were broadly subdivided into induced and down-regulated gene clusters. Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and microbial elicitors up-regulated a diverse set of genes, many belonging to the immunity class, and the response to malaria partially overlapped with this response. Oxidative stress activated a distinctive set of genes, mainly implicated in oxidoreductive processes. Injury up- and down-regulated gene clusters also were distinctive, prominently implicating glycolysis-related genes and citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation/redox-mitochondrial functions, respectively. Cross-comparison of in vivo and in vitro responses indicated the existence of tightly coregulated gene groups that may correspond to gene pathways.

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