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Br J Nutr. 2002 Jun;87(6):605-13.

Intake and sources of phylloquinone (vitamin K1): variation with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a national sample of British elderly people.

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  • 1MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK.


Intake and sources of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) were examined according to socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in free-living British people aged 65 years and over, from the 1994-5 National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Complete 4-d weighed dietary records were obtained from 1152 participants living in private households. Using newly-available, mainly UK-specific food content data, the weighted geometric mean intake of phylloquinone was estimated at 65 (95 % CI 62, 67) microg/d for all participants, with higher intakes in men than in women (70 v. 61 microg/d respectively, P<0.01). The mean nutrient densities of phylloquinone intake were 9.3 and 10.5 microg/MJ for men and women respectively (P<0.01), after adjusting for age group, region and smoking status. Of all the participants, 59 % had phylloquinone intakes below the current guideline for adequacy of 1 microg/kg body weight per d. Participants aged 85 years and over, formerly in manual occupations, or living in Scotland or in northern England reported lower phylloquinone intakes than their comparative groups. Overall, vegetables contributed 60 % of total phylloquinone intake, with cooked green vegetables providing around 28 % of the total. Dietary supplements contributed less than 0.5 % of phylloquinone intake. Participants living in northern England or in Scotland, in particular, derived less phylloquinone from vegetables than those living in southern England.

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