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J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Jun;102(6):809-17.

Changes in vegetable and fruit consumption and awareness among US adults: results of the 1991 and 1997 5 A Day for Better Health Program surveys.

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  • 1Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.



The purpose of this study is to assess population-based changes in vegetable and fruit consumption and psychosocial correlates.


Two nationally representative random digit dial surveys conducted in 1991 and 1997; respondents were queried regarding consumption of and attitudes and knowledge about vegetables and fruit.


Respondents were 2,755 and 2,544 adults (in 1991 and 1997, respectively) older than 18 years.


Vegetable and fruit consumption and message awareness were measured using weighted-only and regression model-adjusted analyses to assess changes.


Mean vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly (P=.007) higher in 1997 than in 1991 using weighted-only analyses, but remained significant only for Hispanic (P=.03) and nonsmoker (P=.004) subgroups when adjusted for demographic shifts. Significantly higher percentages were found in the model-adjusted analyses for those consuming 5 or more (daily servings (23.4% to 25.8%), message awareness (7.7% to 19.2%), and knowledge of the 5 A Day Program (2.0% to 17.8%).


A significantly positive change in vegetable and fruit consumption occurred between 1991 and 1997 according to traditional methods of survey data analysis, but null findings resulted when the data were adjusted for demographic shifts. Nutrition professionals should continue targeting specific demographic subgroups with tailored interventions to move all Americans toward achievement of dietary guidelines for vegetable and fruit consumption.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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