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Am J Vet Res. 2002 Jun;63(6):900-5.

In vitro characterization of the inhibitory effects of ketoconazole on metabolic activities of cytochrome P-450 in canine hepatic microsomes.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan.



To evaluate the inhibitory potency of ketoconazole (KTZ) on the metabolic activities of isozymes of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) in dogs.


4 healthy 1-year-old male Beagles.


Hepatic microsomes were harvested from 4 dogs after euthanasia. To investigate the effects of KTZ on CYP metabolic activities, 7-ethoxyresorufin, tolbutamide, bufuralol, and midazolam hydrochloride were used as specific substrates for CYP1A1/2, CYP2C21, CYP2D15, and CYP3A12, respectively. The concentrations of metabolites formed by CYP were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, except for the resorufin concentrations that were measured by a fluorometric method. The reaction velocity-substrate concentration data were analyzed to obtain kinetic variables, including maximum reaction velocity, Michaelis-Menten constant, and inhibitory constant (Ki).


KTZ competitively inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation; it noncompetitively inhibited tolbutamide methylhydroxylation. Bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was inhibited slightly by KTZ. The mean Ki values of KTZ were 10.6+/-6.0, 170+/-2.5, and 0.180+/-0.131 microM for 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, tolbutamide methylhydroxylation, and midazolam 4-hydroxylation, respectively.


In dogs, KTZ at a therapeutic dose may change the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A12 substrates as a result of inhibition of their biotransformation. Furthermore, no influence of KTZ on the pharmacokinetics of CYP1A1/2, CYP2C21, and CYP2D15 substrates are likely. In clinical practice, adverse drug effects may develop when KTZ is administered concomitantly with a drug that is primarily metabolized by CYP3A12.

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