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Annu Rev Neurosci. 2002;25:381-407. Epub 2002 Mar 20.

Large-scale sources of neural stem cells.

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  • 1Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.


Large-scale sources of neural stem cells are crucial for both basic research and novel approaches toward treating neurological disorders. Three sources that produce neural cells closely resembling their normal counterparts are now available: oncogene immortalized stem cells, neurospheres, and embryonic stem cell (ES)-derived neural cells. Cells including multiple subtypes of CNS and PNS neurons, as well as oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, and astrocytes, are modeled by these large-scale sources. Although most cell lines were originally from rodents, their human counterparts are being discovered and characterized.

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