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Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 May;40(5):198-206.

Pharmacokinetics of dexloxiglumide after administration of single and repeat oral escalating doses in healthy young males.

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  • 1Rotta Research Laboratorium, Monza, Italy.



To assess the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of dexloxiglumide, a new CCK1 receptor antagonist currently under development for the treatment of the constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.


Twelve volunteers were enrolled in the present study and received orally 100, 200 and 400 mg of dexloxiglumide as tablets as a single dose followed by repeated t.i.d. doses for 7 days according to a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy complete crossover design. Plasma and urine were collected before drug administration and up to 72 h after dosing. Dexloxiglumide plasma and urinary concentration, determined using validated HPLC methods with UV detection, were used for the pharmacokinetic analysis by standard noncompartmental methods. In addition, dexloxiglumide safety and tolerability were evaluated throughout the study period by performing standard laboratory tests, by recording vital signs and ECGs and by monitoring the occurrence and severity of adverse events.


After a single oral administration, dexloxiglumide was rapidly bioavailable with mean t(max) ranging from 0.9 - 1.6 h at all doses. The mean peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 1.7+/-0.6, 5.4+/-1.7, and 11.9+/-4.7 microg/ml, and the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were 4.4+/-3.3, 8.6+/-3.6, and 18.3+/-5.9 microg x h/ml at the 3 doses, respectively. Apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) was 30.8+/-13.9, 27.2+/-10.6, and 21.1+/-8.6 l/h at the 3 doses, respectively. The apparent elimination half-life from plasma (t1/2) ranged from 2.6 - 3.3 h at the 3 doses. The excretion of unchanged dexloxiglumide in 0 - 72 h urine accounted for approximately 1% of the administered dose and this was true for all doses. Dexloxiglumide renal clearance (CLR) averaged 0.4+/-0.4, 0.4+/-0.2, and 0.3+/-0.3 l/h for the 3 doses, respectively. After the last dose of the repeated dosing period dexloxiglumide Cmax occurred at 1.1 - 1.6 h after drug administration and averaged 2.4+/-1.3, 7.1+/-2.9, and 15.3+/-2.7 microg/ml for the 3 doses, respectively. The AUC values averaged 5.9+/-3.0, 16.0+/-8.8, and 50.8+/-38.1 microg x h/ml, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve calculated at steady state within a dosing interval (AUCss) averaged 4.6+/-1.6, 11.3+/-3.6, and 28.4+/-8.2 microg x h/ml, whereas CL/F averaged 20.3+/-8.3, 16.3+/-9.0, and 10.3+/-5.0 l/h at the 3 doses, respectively. Dexloxiglumide t1/2 could not be accurately calculated due to the high inter-subject variability and to sustained dexloxiglumide plasma concentrations that precluded the identification ofthe terminal phase of the plasma concentration-time profiles. However, it appeared that dexloxiglumide t1/2 was considerably prolonged at the dose of 400 mg. CLR averaged 0.4+/-0.4, 0.3+/-0.3, and 0.3+/-0.1 l/h for the 3 doses, respectively. After a single dose, the plasma pharmacokinetics of dexloxiglumide were dose-independent in the dose range 100 - 400 mg. After repeated dose the pharmacokinetics of dexloxiglumide were virtually dose-independent in the dose range 100 - 200 mg. A slight deviation from linear pharmacokinetics was found with a dose of 400 mg. Dexloxiglumide plasma pharmacokinetics were also time-independent in the dose range 100 - 200 mg with a deviation from expectation based on the superimposition principle with a dose of 400 mg. Dexloxiglumide urinary excretion and renal clearance were both dose- and time-independent in the dose range 100 - 400 mg. The safety and tolerability of dexloxiglumide administered to healthy young males was good up to the maximum investigated dose of 400 mg both after single and after repeated doses.


The safety and pharmacokinetic profile of dexloxiglumide when the drug is administered as single and repeated doses in the dose range 100 - 400 mg provides the rationale for the choice of the treatment schedule (200 mg t.i.d.) for the efficacy trials in patients with (constipation-predominant) irritable bowel syndrome.

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